This study takes Taichung Port as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the policies for environmental protection of the Taiwan International Ports Corporation. Taichung Port implemented the “Taichung Port area greenhouse gas and related air pollutant emission sources management and reduction of self-management plan” in June, 2016. This was approval by the EPB of Taichung City. In the plan, the internal management organization and procedure for the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is established, using 2014 as the baseline-year for emissions. A comprehensive study of carbon emissions, carbon reduction and energy saving, including stationary, mobile, and area emission sources is undertaken. Some measures to reduce emissions include the vessel speed reduction program, the use of high-performance lamps, energy savings for offices, the automated handling of bulk cargo and airtight storage, the electrification of handling equipment, the inception of automated inspection lanes, vehicle-self-management programs, and
other non-marine industries. The reduction in emissions is 1,415,476 tons and 2.8%. The example of Taichung Port, shows that the self-management method is applicable to other ports in Taiwan.
To combat global warming and the increasing impact of extreme weather, carbon reduction has become a priority for governments. In Taiwan, coal is used as the main source of energy for power generation. The reduction of carbon emissions is a major challenge for the formation of a governmental energy policy. The capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CCU) and its utilization (CCSU) are major sources of carbon reduction. To the west of Taiwan, under the Taiwan Strait, there are vast Tertiary sedimentary basins, which may allow carbon storage in the deep saline aquifer. The large Tai-hsi foreland basin has many sandstone reservoirs that have good pore space that would provide an effective storage site for anthropogenic carbon dioxide. However, the adverse geological environment and public acceptance present problems for the development of a domestic CCS industry. This paper determines the challenges for the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep saline formations in Taiwan. The technologies, capital, regulatory framework and leakage risks are determined to show that geological sequestration is vital if the Taiwanese government is to achieve its reduction targets.
To address the problem of rising ground temperature in the Taipei basin, the use of ground and groundwater as a medium to dissipate or store heat is important for the sustainable development of Taipei city. The use of closed-type and open-type circulating water allows indoor heat to be carried into an underground reservoir in summer and stored there for heating use in winter. Compared with the traditional method of using open air to dissipate the exhaust heat, the deep ground layer or groundwater is a more effective way to dissipate heat. The urban heat-island effect is prominent issue that has become worse in the Taipei basin. The use of air-conditioners is increasing. Using groundwater to conduct away the heat from air-conditioners reduces the problems of dissipating heat into the air and affords energy savings. The slow but steady flow of groundwater in the Jing-mei gravel stratum underneath Taipei basin could absorb and carry away the heat to deep wells. In-situ tests and numerical simulations are used to illustrate these two types of circulation and heat-dissipating behavior. The issues involved in promoting the proposed groundwater circulation method are also addressed in this study.
Because of climate change, the phenomenon of global warming is increasing. In order to address this problem, countries must strengthen greenhouse gas emissions constraints and focus on the whole life cycle for the carbon inventory action, which is the carbon footprint inventory. By actively considering the whole life cycle carbon inventory, the results of the carbon reduction plan are relevant for the entire life cycle. In order to understand the actual carbon emissions from public construction projects, the planning, design, construction and operation of the implementation phase uses carbon emissions estimates and inventory operations, in order to save energy. Present trends in government policy mean that major public construction projects must take account of carbon inventory operations. However, the inventory can show a substantial reduction in carbon efficiency. If carbon estimation is used at the design stage, the major carbon sequestration projects can be identified before construction and appropriate adjustments can be made to designs.
Energy conservation and carbon reduction is a vital element of government policy. In 2012, the Directorate General of Highways, MOTC developed the “Engineering Carbon Management Framework and Mechanism”, to allow carbon management for a project’s life cycle as a basis for carbon reduction in design and planning for future engineering projects. "The Tsao Pu Tunnel Project on the Provincial No.9 South-Link Highway is an element of this structure and mechanism. During the construction period, carbon emissions will be calculated for each tender and each year. When the project is completed, a correct and complete carbon footprint inventory report will be submitted to a qualified certification body in support of an application for a carbon footprint statement certificate. The final goal is to understand the overall carbon emissions of the An Shuo Tsao Pu section Improvement Project at the Provincial No.9 South-Link Highway during the entire life cycle, using actual inventory results, in order to determine the localized product carbon emission coefficient and the engineering carbon footprint parameters. The carbon reduction for the project during construction period and the overall effect of this carbon reduction will be reported.
This study describes the carbon inventory content, the practical approach and the initial results for this project, including an evaluation of carbon emissions using detailed design results, the actual carbon footprint inventory and certification for the project and a study of the amount of carbon sink change and collection. Using the actual results for the carbon footprint inventory and the carbon sink change, the project life cycle carbon inventory report will be a useful guideline for similar tunnel projects.
In response to global warming and climate change, the Directorate General of Highways initiated a carbon management framework for road construction projects in early 2012 and has started to promote carbon management in road construction projects. International carbon management and the related standards for infrastructure have also developed. Carbon management has been an element of the Suhua Highway Improvement Project since June 2012. The methods and tools for carbon inventory were established at the beginning of the project. Following the completion of construction works in 2016, experts and scholars have discussed the estimation scope and content of the operation and the management stage, in order to allow more comprehensive carbon management for the entire life cycle of the infrastructure.
As the construction proceeded, the Suhua Project continued to gather data on carbon inventory, in compliance with the carbon footprint verification requirements, and has produced Taiwan-specific and localized information of carbon emissions. The Dongao-Dongyue Section Construction Project (Section A3) is presented as an example in this study, to illustrate the carbon footprint of construction, the carbon emission characteristics, the carbon emissions of the life cycle and the carbon reduction results. With more inventory information and analysis to come, the results of carbon management for the Suhua Project can be served as important foundation for life cycle carbon management for road construction in the future.
For the past thirty to forty years, issues such as the hole in the ozone layer, global warming, greenhouse gases (GHG) and climate change have grown quickly in prominence, following the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol of 1987 and 1997, respectively. As a consequence, engineering design and construction has included measures that increase ecological sustainability, energy conservation and carbon reduction in recent years alongside measures to increase safety and economy. Modern projects must have the lowest possible effect on the environment and ecology.
This paper uses an underground cable project as an example to explain how these ideas were implemented in the cable tunnel for an urban area, where the environmental conditions were significantly restricted. The paper first details the project and its environmental constraints. The selection of construction methods and the measures for ecology and sustainability are then illustrated. The corresponding carbon reduction for the major construction items is also presented. This is a reference for similar projects.
Due to the crisis brought about by climate change and limited resources, all industries need to find solutions to prevent global warming and the greenhouse effect. For example, Taiwan’s carbon emissions were ranked 21st in the world in 2014, which civil engineering and construction industries are top of 33%. As for water consumption, Taiwan ranked 18th in the world for water usage (2015), with the average construction site using up to 10-20 ton/day of water (2013). Therefore, the construction industry not only considers progress, cost, quality and security, but also needs to mitigate carbon emissions and water consumption from the construction processes. Thus, we need to offer a reduction strategy, and choose the most sustainable and ecofriendly alternative.
Pipeline systems represent critical infrastructure that is crucial to national competitiveness around the world. In addition, underground excavation projects are the most uncertain factor during the construction. This study presents methodology for estimating the carbon footprints, water footprints, and environmental impact generated from construction processes using the LCA tools SimaPro 8 and Umberto Carbon Footprint Calculator. We carry out assessment of carbon footprints, water footprints and environmental impact of materials and machines based on the resource tables of PCCES. The proposed approach can be treated as holistic “value engineering” that identifies the opportunities to mitigate such impact by planning/design and construction stages.
We present a case study of pipe-jacking using this methodology in planning/design and construction stages. Investigation including novel normalized carbon footprints (tCO2e/m2/m), water footprints (m3/m2/m), and environmental impact (pt/m2/m). Consequential waste reduction strategy are suggested as well in this study. Environmental investigation during the underground excavation projects can be taken into account as a proper methodology for resources conservation in the near future.
Carbon sequestration of vegetation is commonly using the estimation formula in “Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories” of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Other than its use to measure carbon sequestration of forest, it can be further use to estimate carbon sequestration of slope afforestation. This case study using the collapse slope area of state-owned forest land in the catchment area of Zengwen Reservoir, Nanhua Reservoir, and Wushantou Reservoir as a benchmark to explore the result of conservation efforts. From typhoon Morakot (2009) to typhoon Meiji (2016), the area of slope stabilization and erosion control using vegetation is about 1,537.9ha, the carbon sequestration is about 15,417.9 tons/year, it is about the amount of carbon sequestration of 39.6 Daan Forest Park.