The Da-Kang-Pu O5/R10 Transit crossing station of CR4, where the KMRT (Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System) routes (The Red and Orange Lines) meet, and is one of the busiest transportation and commercial spots at the intersection of Chung Shan and Chung Chen Roads. This Da-Kang-Pu O5/R10 station of CR4 is built by 140m diameter circular diaphragm wall, which has been applied for LNG underground Tank Project, but such a large scale diameter under such severe conditions, in the center of the metropolitan city with maintaining heavy traffic flow and keeping safety and environment surrounding commercial spots, have not been found in the past in the world. This paper introduces the planning, design and construction records regarding the above circular diaphragm wall project.
Due to the sensitive soil property and metropolitan construction conditions, various disasters have occurred during the early stage of Kaohsiung MRT construction. For the construction risks, protection measures and verifying approaches, the Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Company has established the following requirements of “ The Basic Requirements for shield launching, shield arrival and cross passage construction “ and “assessment and management of high risk construction items “.
These two codes will be presented in the article with examples of real case, and hopefully could be the key reference for risk management and control of shield tunnel construction in the future.
In rapid transit engineering, shield tunneling construction is generally considered as a high risk operation, especially for tunnel-end-face breaking procedure. Because of the existence of some sensitive soils in the Kaohsiung area, the KMRT rapid transit engineering is recognized as a highly great for geotechnical engineers. In this paper, the authors studied and analyzed the conditions about failure at O2 Station of KMRT. The study included soils conditions evaluation, review construction records, and the occurrence mishap event. Based on analysis and evaluation of factors that may the rapid transit system, the authors provide a set of procedures and guideline for failure measurement of tunnel-end-face breaking operation. Conclusions and discussions of this paper are expected to be helpful for engineers to solve similar problems in future.
While a shield tunnel passes underneath an existing building, if proper protections for that building are not taken correctly, or the drilling procedures are not managed well, the process might cause excessive settlement of the existing building. This article focuses on the MAXPERM GROUTING and the drilling management module adopted by KRTC where the shield tunnel passed underneath a sixteen-story building. This actual case confirmed the main factors resulting in success or failure of shield tunnel construction are proper ground treatment, strict monitor feedbacks as well as adjustments, and the well procedure management.
In an effort to improve the present evaluation procedures of soil liquefaction potential infrastructures in Taiwan, the authors proposed a three-stage method that took advantages of, such as environmental information mapping, geological information analysis, and statistics theory for quantitative analysis. In this paper, the authors have described the proposed methodology in details. The metro system of Kaohsiung City has also used as a study case for engineering practice illustration.
A series of empirical formulas and some geotechnical soil parameters have been established from the geological investigation data along the Red and Orange Lines of Kaohsiung MRT. The geological investigation data involve the results of isotropic consolidated drained and undrained triaxial compression test, saturated unconsolidated undrained triaxial compression test, unconfined compression test, direct shear test, field vane shear test, one-dimensional consolidation test, piezocone penetration test, lateral load test and standard penetration test.
The established soil parameters shown as Table 2 included the undrained shear strength Su, coefficient of consolidation Cv and volumetric compressibility mv, compression index CC, swelling index CS, effective friction angleφ¢, characteristic value of horizontal subgrade reaction modulus Km and deformation modulus Em. The above empirical formulas can be used for design and analysis purpose within the region for Red and Orange Line of Kaohsiung MRT, but need to be studied if used in other region.
APPLICATION OF NEFMAC METHOD (FRP REINFORCED CONCRETE) FOR SHIELD LAUNCHING
高雄都會區大眾捷運系統紅橘線路網建設工程中CR4區段標是位於高雄市兩條主要幹道-中山路和中正路圓環交叉點，包含紅線R10車站和橘線O5車站的立體交會車站 -「大港埔車站」（O5/R10車站）及四周之明挖及潛盾隧道工程。O5/R10車站連接紅線「高雄火車站」（R11車站）及橘線「市議會站」（O4車站）的隧道，計畫將使用潛盾工法施工。 本工程在潛盾發進工法選擇上，為避免車站及明挖覆蓋隧道受到潛盾發進破除連續壁時湧水、湧砂之風險，採用了台灣國內首次使用的「NEFMAC」工法（New Fiber Composite Material for Reinforcing Concrete）。此一工法藉著稱為FRP（Fiber Reinforced Plastics）之材料 - 連續碳素纖維、玻璃纖維製成之樹脂加勁材來取代鋼筋，作為連續壁混凝土的加勁材料，如此便可以利用FRP耐磨度低的特性，以潛盾機之切削鑽頭來直接磨除連續壁混凝土鏡面。本文即是針對CR4區段標連續壁設計、施工採用「NEFMAC工法」中之FRP材料所做的報告。
The position of KMRT CR4 section is at the intersection of Chung Shan and Chung Chen Roads, where The Red and Orange Lines of the KMRT routes meet, including O5/R10 station, cut & cover tunnels and shield tunnels. Meanwhile the routes between O5/R10 and R11 stations and between O5/R10 and O4 stations shall be constructed by the shield tunneling method. The shield launching and arriving generally have applied the traditional method with a ground improvement, but the accidents and troubles of the shield works are actually often caused by poor ground improvement works at the shield entrance face outside the diaphragm wall. Therefore, to reduce the risks of them, NEFMAC method（New Fiber Composite Material for Reinforcing Concrete）, by which method the shield machine can demolish directly the shield entrance face of diaphragm wall by itself because of FRP’s higher tensile strength but softer behavior to be chipped out than rebar, have been developed and was applied for the first time in Taiwan. This paper introduces the above NEFMAC method applied for the shield launching in CR4 section, where briefly the design and construction records of.
The Taiwan’s high speed rail (THSR) Project is the largest transportation infrastructure initiatives in Taiwan, and the first major Taiwan national public facilities involving private investment. Meanwhile, the longest main tunnel with 7364 meters crossing Paghuashan Mountain is regarded as the most crucial sub-project in the critical path among the whole THSR project. In order to assure and improve this critical tunnel project under successfully controlled, there are a lot of new type of construction equipment and fresh planning ideas led into Taiwan by the joint ventures. According to the relevant engineering records and revealed information, this Paghuashan project has finally shown to be well performed and implemented with more than expected. Totally, this study will introduce and discuss the way of automation in excavation and construction of this critical tunnel, including the general information of geological condition, construction method, support measures, working productivity, equipment and facilities, and the overall successful performance. It is expected to provide detailed insight and valuable experiences for automatic construction of long tunnels in the future.