Great development of geotechnical construction machinery was started in 1971, as part of the Ten Major Construction Projects, in Taiwan. The significant development machinery occurred through many construction plans such as the Six-year National Development Plan, HSR plan, KMRT plan, and the post-stage of the TMRT plan. This study collects and introduces five sections and nine distinct professional regions of geotechnical engineering.
Diaphragm wall has become the most popular deep excavation construction methods in Taiwan. Due to over-populated metropolitan area and commonly encountered alluvium geo-strata, reliability and safety of retaining structures have become the major concerns of deep excavation in limited space in urban area. To deal with high ground water table and to avoid leakage or even collapse failure of retaining structure, diaphragm wall has been widely adapted in Taiwan and, thus, engineers have constructed most in quantity and accumulated most practice experiences in the world.
There are many types and models of construction machineries for diaphragm wall construction. Each of the equipment has its own specialties and limitations. It is hardly to find a machinery that could concur to all geological condition and environment requirements. Therefore, it is important to carefully evaluate all designing, geological, and environmental factors before selecting the adequate construction machineries. In this paper, general introduction present diaphragm wall construction equipment adapted in Taiwan will first be present. Suggested process of evaluating suitable machineries will then be presented to provide engineers as construction references.
Unlike other construction activities, tunneling deals with uncertainties in ground conditions. Thus, to ensure the construction safety and efficiency of a tunneling project, high level construction skills are required to counter the ever changing tectonic stress and deforming ground. Amid all the geological and geographic constraints, the tunneling contractor must select an appropriate tunneling technique together with appropriate equipment and field management to expedite tunnel excavation. Different stratums require different techniques and equipment for a standard tunneling cycle.This involves excavation/shoring/mucking. Obviously, the equipment must be suitable to tunnel efficiently.
This paper provides a brief description on the selection of NATM equipment and the performance of shield tunneling machines in hard/mix ground, gravelly ground, and alluvial soil. These experiences are useful references for selecting appropriate tunneling machines for similar projects.
For more than 40 years, pipelines with various diameters have been constructed by pipejacking in Taiwan. Due to its safety and avoidance of disturbance, pipejacking is broadly applied in different kinds of tunnels for transportation and utilities, especially in metropolitan areas. The construction methods and quality control of pipejacking have been well established; however, most field engineers have only rough and superficial understanding of pipejacking equipment. This essay gives a systematic introduction to pipejacking equipment.
Construction in a congested urban area is always a challenge for geotechnical engineering practice. To minimize or to prevent geotechnical construction induced damage to adjacent structures, the jet grouting method has frequently been used to strengthen the ground. However, increasing the water tightness of the ground is a challenge due to “larger design diameter” and “larger construction depth.” It is not sufficient anymore to manipulate uncertainty by just looking at grouting parameters and safety factors from past experiences. Improving risk management by utilizing effective grouting equipment and a quality control technique is an important task. Therefore, this study begins by collecting, comparing and contrasting jet grouting specifications from Taiwan, Japan, America and Europe. In view of a whole series of high pressure pump developments and advanced QA/QC procedures for assuring jet grouted quality, we expect better quality control when using the jet grouting method to decrease chances of supplementary grouting after construction.
The earliest embankment dam in Taiwan can be traced back to the Hu-Tou-Pi earth dam, which was completed by labour and animal power in 1841. From 1896 to 1945, steam-powered equipment such as steam locomotives, power shovels and rolling machines were used during embankment dam construction. Since 1945, modern machine techniques have been applied to embankment dam construction, and many kinds of modern construction equipment have been adopted.
In order to enhance the efficiency and quality of embankment dam construction, a compaction-meter was developed with a satellite positioning system in the 1980's. This kind of meter has been installed to the steel drums of vibration rollers to check the compaction degree of embankments, and has been gradually applied in embankment construction. In addition, the issues of carbon emission reduction have been emphasized during construction. Construction equipments should also provide sophisticated performance and efficiency. In the future, the application of these advanced equipment and issues of carbon emission reduction should be considered in Taiwan to promote the economy and improve the quality of dam construction, while also protecting the environment.
In recent years, the hot spring tourism industry has been developing rapidly. Hot springs bathing areas have been unable to meet the diverse needs of consumers. Thus, many consumers have started to look for a hot spring areas outside the traditional regions. In order to obtain a stable supply of hot spring water, raise the temperature, increase the amount of body and complete cross wall wells in a timely manner, spa drilling machines have also been developed. Furthermore, well monitoring equipment and safety devices have become more complicated. The markets of deep and shallow cross wall segments are also emerging.
This article introduces the major differences and applicability of various geological conditions by examining machines used in various stages by well-known domestic construction machinery suppliers. We also propose corresponding design considerations for dealing with risks encountered when applying these machines to deep well excavation. Last, we discuss factors spa industries should consider when creating budgets for drilling and construction.
Ground anchors have been used in Taiwan for more than 40 years. While some anchors are used for temporary purposes on foundations and tunnel excavations, the majority of anchors are used as permanent anchors for slope stability. Due to the changing groundwater conditions and the deterioration of geo-material, ground anchors used to maintain the stability of slopes tend to deteriorate with time. In particular, the catastrophic landslide event which occurred at the 3.1K marker of Freeway No.3 in April 2010 proved to the public that the consequences of poorly maintained slope facilities can be fatal. Since that landslide event, almost all the man-made slopes along the freeways and highways in Taiwan have been inspected and slope stability has been re-evaluated. Among the methods used to evaluate the status quo of anchored slopes, the lift-off test is frequently adopted to find out the residual anchor loads (Tr) of anchors. These results facilitate subsequent stability evaluation. This paper introduces a modified lift-off test procedure that can reduce the data reading error that occurs in the early stage of testing. By applying an extra loading-unloading cycle in the test procedure, the proposed procedure can help to provide a distinct inflection point on the load-deformation curves for better identifying the residual anchor load. It is expected that the proposed lift-off test procedure can provide a more reliable way to obtain the residual loads of service ground anchors in the field.
Based on safety, quality, scheduling and economic considerations, different types of drilling machines and equipment are used depending on water depth and geological conditions of investigation location.
In general, Jack-up Platforms are used for shallow water sites, using platform weight as the reaction force, to execute drilling and carrying sampling work through hydraulic drilling rigs. The sampling methods and drilling equipment used in this kind of process are similar to those of onshore projects. Exploration vessels are used in deep water sites, using marine drill rigs to execute drilling and sampling work.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the geological investigation equipment for offshore engineering projects (e.g. offshore wind farms and harbor engineering projects). This paper will outline preliminary concepts for practitioners to select investigation methods and drilling equipment, and serve as a reference for project planning and offshore geological investigation.
A 地(Geo-ground) :大地(地形，地質，地表及地下水文，岩石，土壤；從宏觀、巨觀、至微觀)
B 工(Technologies) :大地工程相關「科技」(材料，能源、動力、機械，資訊，生物，等等科技)
C 開(Operations) :大地工程相關「作業」，(廣義：調查、規劃、設計、施工、使用 、維修、監測、災害防治；狹義：施工)
D 物(Structures) :大地工程相關 「構造物」(基礎，隧道，堤，壩，砌石構造物，坡地，擋土工，垃圾掩埋場，等等)