Geoinformatics stands for the information technologies that are applicable to Geological science and Geotechnical engineering. Besides the specific skills in using available information and computational tools, the ability to continue to develop skills and understanding of the professional issues that surround the use of computational tools – the types of tools and resources that allow engineers to mana77ge the information, models, complex calculations, and processes associated with carrying out engineering activities, is becoming much more important for engineers in modern world. Therefore this paper is intended to introduce the development and possible applications of the GIS, GPS and RS technologies that can be very helpful in geotechnical engineering practice.
Geotechnical investigation assistant systems were developed applying personal digital assistant(PDA), global positioning system(GPS) and geographic information systems(GIS) tools. The purpose of the development is to increase speed and accuracy of geotechnical investigations. The concept and organization of the system developments with PDA applications was introduced in details, including "drilling investigation assistant system", "surface geology investigation assistant system" and "slope safety evaluation assistant system". Furthermore, an example was illustrated for the application of GPS, PDA and GIS for a debris flow forensic investigation. This paper also suggests that application of the newest information technology in geotechnical engineering will be the most promising approach in developing a geotechnical knowledge management system.
The Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit systems (K-MRT) is one of the major national construction projects in the southern Taiwan. Of which the Fengshan to Pingtung section is proposed to not only share the overloaded traffic on both county highway and railroad, but also to balance the gap of living standard between urban and rural areas and then to promote the development of Kaohsiung metropolitan surroundings ahead. The Ta-Liau Main Depot has been scheduled as an administration center and headquarters of K-MRT. Before this main depot being constructed, it is important to investigate and evaluate the potential hazards of subsurface soil deposits and rock formations.
The project is to be conducted in 3 years. The purpose of this research concentrates on the fundamental geoenviroment investigations and focuses on the establishment of geohazard database along the Fengshan to Ta-Liau section, includes main depot of K-MRT. However, the soil liquefaction occurred at Ta-Liau depot would be recognized as an important issue in this study. It is expected that the established geohazard database systems, can offer an essential reference to indentify the potential soil liquefaction area for futural construction on Ta-Liau depot of K-MRT.
This study introduces a spatial analysis of the soil properties and shear-wave velocity of the Songshan Formation in the Taipei Basin by the kriging and cokriging methods. Data used in the analysis include SPT-N, grain size, water content, unit weight, plasticity index, liquid limit, and shear-wave velocity. We can estimate each soil parameter and determine the estimation error for different spatial points by using the kriging statistics. By utilizing the cokriging method, we obtain the advantage of a better estimation of the shear-wave velocity by integrating the plentiful SPT-N values with the rather small number of shear-wave velocity measurements, and thus improve the result.
As population grows and lands become scarce, developments tend to stretch to hill slopes and natural hazards, such as landslides and debris flow, frequently result in losses of lives and properties. It will thus be helpful to identify those areas which are particularly vulnerable to environmental factors, such as rainfalls, earthquakes, etc. so precautionary or preventive measures can be taken to avoid disasters from happening. Natural hazards usually can be related to geological features and their potential risks can be assessed if sufficient information is available. A geographic information system has been developed to compile geological data which are contributing factors to nature hazards and to compute the environment sensitivity indices of different areas. Based on these indices, areas with high risk can be located and maps can be prepared with these areas properly identified.
The main purpose of this research is to assess the landslides caused by earthquakes or torrential rainfall through physical based single-variable analysis based on GIS technology. The parameter used to assess rain-induced landslides is the safety factor of infinite slope. The influence of rainfall is taken into account by using the groundwater depth factor (m) which is relative to precipitation、 porosity and plant cover. The seismic effect is considered by Newmark’s displacement method which is proposed by Jibson et al (2000) . The technology of remote sensing (RS) is used to get temporal information of landslide events. The landslide susceptibility of the Shitou area after the Herb typhoon (1996) and the Chi-Chi earthquake (1999) were verified using the landslide location data. The results reveal that satisfactory consistence between the susceptibility map and the existing data on landslide location can be efficiently obtained through GIS and physical based single-variable analysis.
Due to the fragile geological condition in Taiwan area, disasters caused by landslides, debris flows often occurred during typhoon or heavy rainfall seasons. Recently the disaster of debris flow is the severest especially. According to the characteristics of debris flows, this study establishes influenced factors using GIS so as to access the risk of debris flow and prevent it from happening accordingly. Eminent influence factors are identified through statistical test analysis. Using the capability of classification of neural network as a risk assessment tool of debris flows, influence factors have been prepared as the input of neural network model. It’s been verified that the training results perform as expectation and they should facilitate the risk assessment of debris flow hereafter. Finally, the risk of debris flows is classified in order to establish spatial analysis and attribute query.
The New Wuchieh and Lishi Creek Diversion Tunnel Project is a transbasin diversion project that connects the existing Wuchieh Dam and the new Lishi Dam to the Sun-Moon Lake Reservoir. The tunnel is 15.7 km in length. In which, the section in the Main Tunnel from the C-Adit to Muchilan Creek, about 7.1 km in length, is bored with a TBM, while the remainder of the length of tunnel is excavated by means of conventional drill and blast method. To explore the TBM bored section; both horizontal and inclined long drill holes were sunk. This is a first in terms of geological exploration for tunnelling. The design drawings and specification adopt many new measures that are meant to meet the demands on fast tunnel excavation and supporting, flexible construction and use of new materials. Through these measures, the construction of the tunnel will progress smoothly. For special difficult sections, five combined construction methods through use of TBM as well as D&B are recommended. In addition, the Constructor has the option of choosing construction methods that best suit the situation. He is also in position to submit construction plans, which, upon approval from the Client, can be the basis of engineering construction.